EARTHQUAKE 3D Enhanced Edition.rarl
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EARTHQUAKE 3D Enhanced Edition.rarl
The Enhanced Edition is the latest and best version of Earthquake 3D. It contains many features which are not included with the Free Edition. Many sources of earthquake data, filters, customizable alert sounds, custom Earth images, presets for different configurations, headline earthquake news, and much much More...
Arcane Dimensions is a singleplayer mod. It's a partial conversion with breakable objects and walls, enhanced particle system, numerous visual improvements and new enemies and weapons. The level design is much more complex in terms of geometry and gameplay than in the original game.
TheReal-ESSI Simulator(Realistic Modeling and Simulation ofEarthquakes, and/orSoils, and/orStructures and theirInteraction)is a software, hardware and documentation system for high performance,sequential or parallel, time domain, linear or nonlinear, elastic andinelastic, deterministic or probabilistic, finite element modeling andsimulation of statics and dynamics of soil, statics and dynamics of rock, statics and dynamics of structures, statics of and dynamics of soil-structure systems, dynamics of earthquakes, and dynamic earthquake-soil-structure interaction.
Each single-player and multiplayer map has been enhanced with path-tracing, a super high-fidelity form of ray tracing. This enables lifelike lighting, reflections, shadows, and much much more, exemplifying the power of ray tracing, and demonstrating why AAA developers are working with us to enhance their blockbusters with the tech.
Founded in 1975, Computers and Structures, Inc. (CSI) is recognized globally as the pioneering leader in software tools for structural and earthquake engineering. Software from CSI is used by thousands of engineering firms in over 160 countries for the design of major projects, including the Taipei 101 Tower in Taiwan, One World Trade Center in New York, the 2008 Olympics Birds Nest Stadium in Beijing and the cable-stayed Centenario Bridge over the Panama Canal. CSI's software is backed by more than four decades of research and development, making it the trusted choice of sophisticated design professionals everywhere.
\r\n\t\t\tCSI offers an enhanced error notification service for customers wishing to comply with reporting regulations set forth by the nuclear industry. With this service, customers receive a customized notification whenever a qualifying error is found in CSI software, including the nature, scope and impact of the error and a workaround whenever possible. Customers may make their own determination as to whether the error is safety-related. Contact CSI Sales for more information about the Error Notification Service or contact sales for pricing. CSI does not report software errors directly to the NRC or any other agency. \r\n\t\t
The high seismic productivity of volcanic areas provides the chance to investigate the local stress conditions with great resolution, by analysing the slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes, namely the b-value. Here we investigated the seismicity of Mt. Etna between 2005 and 2019, focusing on one of the largest known episodes of unrest in December 2018, when most of the intruding magma aborted, rather oddly, its ascent inside the volcano. We found a possible stress concentration zone along magma pathways, which may have inhibited the occurrence of a larger eruption. If the origin of such hypothetical loaded region is related to tectonic forces, one must consider the possibility that geodynamic processes can locally result in such rapid crustal strain as to perturb the release of magma. Strong b-value time-variations occurred a few days before the unrest event, suggesting new possibilities for investigating the volcano state and impending eruptions.
The average size distribution of earthquakes, described by the slope of the FMD (i.e. the b-value) is inversely dependent on the mean magnitude, and thus to some extent on the mean length of seismogenic structures20,21. However, it has been confirmed many times in both laboratory8,10,11,13 and field studies9,12,14 that it depends not only on the material properties and fractal dimension of fractures and fault systems15,16,17 but also closely on the local stress conditions.
The b-value averages around 1 on a global scale20,22, which means a nearly tenfold increase in the number of earthquakes for successively smaller magnitudes, but local conditions may lead to remarkable anomalies.
Pockets of b-values considerably greater than 1, embedded in average valued crust23, are generally observed in volcanic and geothermal areas24, and an almost single school of thought16,19,21,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34 trace them to the neighbourhood of active magma storage and conduits, corresponding to volumes repeatedly intruded by magmatic fluids, and thus intensely fractured by mechanical and thermal stress18,19. Consequently, a high fractal dimension of seismicity characterizes these crustal regions16,17, which means that a dense net of relatively small-scale fractures almost completely fills the seismogenic volume, with the preferential occurrence of frequent low-magnitude earthquakes (i.e. high b-values). Slip along fault surfaces is further favoured by the high fluid pressure, which has the effect of locally reducing the normal effective stress9,26,27,31,34.
Conversely, values of b considerably lower than 1, which result from a statistically reduced number of small-energy earthquakes, are related to stress concentration zones8,9, as asperities along fault planes14,35, where a relatively large volume is available for faulting9,20.
Temporal variations of the b-value must be interpreted in the framework of possible time-changes in the relevant stress conditions10,11,13,14,36. Experimental and numerical results show that increasing differential stress is accompanied by the closing of microcracks and their propagation and coalescence into larger ones, resulting in higher-magnitude earthquakes and thus in decreased b-values11. A rupture is likely to connect one sub-volume to another in a highly stressed environment because the system contains more energy8,12. Conversely, an increase in the b-value is believed to be the reflection of decreased differential stress, which can derive from the injection of pressurized fluids or the sudden release of seismic energy soon after large earthquakes14,36, resulting in a temporary higher proportion of small seismic events.
Except for a few episodes (e.g. on 19 December 2009), the cumulative number of earthquakes and related seismic strain-release (Fig. 2b; seismic energy is computed following the relation reported in ref. 39) shows a linear trend from 2005 to the first half of 2016, despite the remarkable volumetric gap of erupted magma between mid-2009 and the end of 2010, also accompanied by intense inflation of the volcano40.
The two models were subtracted to highlight relevant changes after the intrusive episode (percent b-value difference sections and maps in Figs. 3 and 4). If on the one hand, a certain degree of approximation subsists since the two models are mediated over two long and largely overlapping periods, on the other hand, this approach ensures a proper number of earthquakes to calculate reliable b-values over wide crustal volumes23.
We point out that spatial b mapping is more resolute and accurate than its time variations because by taking into account the whole catalogue and sampling constant, statistically significant Nmin above Mc around each close-spaced node of a three-dimensional grid, distinct b-values can be calculated for relatively small adjacent sub-volumes; in this way, anomalously seismogenic zones, even of limited size, can be distinguished. Conversely, temporal b variations may not be diagnostic if calculated in too narrow regions; as a matter of fact, several earthquakes occurring in neighbouring sectors, characterized by diverse seismic patterns, must be included for reliable computing, with the effect of introducing non-local trends. Such issues can be bypassed to some extent if b time series are calculated within large volumes, which overall show relatively uniform characteristics in the spatial b analysis.
Before the end of 2016, the b-value shows an overall regular trend, except for an abrupt fall on 13 May 2008 (Fig. 5a, b); it relates to stronger than normal earthquakes during the opening of the dykes that had drained a major lava effusion until 6 July 2009. The more pronounced drop in TS-1b, compared to TS-2, is linked to the propagation of fractures mainly at shallow depths. During the following year and a half, the remarkable volumetric gap of erupted magma led to a gradual slight rise of the b-value in the time series (Fig. 5b). A similar trend is also observed during the subsequent resumption of summit paroxysmal explosive activity in January 2011, which discontinuously lasted until mid-2016 and is believed to have drained most of the stored magma2. Such slight rise in b in the time series can be related to a certain increment of fluid pressure within the plumbing system, which had the effect of diminishing the differential stress, thus favouring the preferential occurrence of frequent, relatively small earthquakes during both the volumetric gap of erupted magma and the subsequent summit paroxysms. However, the observed variations are very small (on the order of 0.1 percent b differences), which suggests that only minor changes in the stress conditions perturbed seismicity patterns during Etna volcanic activity.
The main change instead occurred after the middle of 2016; the relevant decrease in erupted magma volumes (Fig. 2a) is accompanied by the exponential growth of the cumulative number of earthquakes (black-dashed arrow, Fig. 2b) and strongly increased b-values (Fig. 5a, c). The onset of such remarkable growth in b is observed at the beginning of 2017, corresponding very well with the long-lasting magma-fluid pressure build-up that preluded the December 2018 eruption42. The magmatic volatiles injected within the plumbing system and the net of fractures cutting through its surroundings were not efficiently released this time, building up a huge fluid pressure inside the volcano, which in turn increases the b-values. 153554b96e