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Shell Shock: Part II [HOT]

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Shell Shock: Part II [HOT]

Similar encounters happen more than you might think. I ended up living across the street from someone in WA who was from my same small town in CA. I mentioned the small town in MN where half my family is from while talking to a friend in a bar in CO, and the waitress was shocked to hear me mention it because that was where she was from. My boyfriend recently delivered a pizza in Denver to a customer who was from the same small WI town as him. And those are just the ones that come to mind immediately. The most unrealistic part of the chance encounter in this episode was that Wescott saw a guy he had actually seen before, not just someone who happened to be part of Ijil. But stranger things have happened, even in real life.

We can use the Shellshock vulnerability to compromise a server running cgi or any other scripts that trigger a bash shell with environment variables, which can be controlled by the attacker.

Overall, the vulnerability in and of itself does not allow remote execution, but rather the implementation of a vulnerable bash shell as a part of a network based service. We will first review why a vulnerable local shell is dangerous for remote execution. Second, we will identify specific steps to mitigate the risk within your network and illustrate a repeatable example of a web page that provides the avenue for remote execution.

As seen in our example, in order to achieve remote execution, specific conditions must be met. We start with a network service (HTTP) executing code (PHP), which passes un-sanitized data (PHP) to a bash environment (bash script). Inside the bash script, the un-sanitized variable must be exported, and a subsequent bash shell must be spawned in order for the arbitrary code to be parsed and executed.

Within 24 hours of the CVE disclosure, CrowdStrike observed multiple tactics to gain remote access to hosts, including attempted downloading and execution of Unix based RATs, netcat and /dev/tcp reverse shell commands, webshell uploads, and multiple PERL based IRC bots. It is imperative that network operators remain vigilant in the next couple of weeks while software developers provide patches to fix this far-reaching vulnerability.

The term "shell shock" was coined by the soldiers themselves. Symptoms included fatigue, tremor, confusion, nightmares and impaired sight and hearing. It was often diagnosed when a soldier was unable to function and no obvious cause could be identified. Because many of the symptoms were physical, it bore little overt resemblance to the modern diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Shell shock took the British Army by surprise. In an effort to better understand and treat the condition, the Army appointed Charles S. Myers, a medically trained psychologist, as consulting psychologist to the British Expeditionary Force to offer opinions on cases of shell shock and gather data for a policy to address the burgeoning issue of psychiatric battle casualties.

Myers had been educated at Caius College Cambridge and trained in medicine at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Shortly after qualifying as a physician, he took an academic post at Cambridge, running an experimental psychology laboratory. However, at the outbreak of the war, Myers felt compelled to return to clinical practice to assist the war effort. The War Office had turned him down for overseas service because of his age (he was 42), but undeterred, he crossed to France on his own initiative and secured a post at a hospital opened by the Duchess of Westminster in the casino at Le Touquet. Once Myers was there, his research credentials made him a natural choice to study the mysteries of shell shock in France.

Along with William McDougall, another psychologist with a medical background, Myers argued that shell shock could be cured through cognitive and affective reintegration. The shell-shocked soldier, they thought, had attempted to manage a traumatic experience by repressing or splitting off any memory of a traumatic event. Symptoms, such as tremor or contracture, were the product of an unconscious process designed to maintain the dissociation. Myers and McDougall believed a patient could only be cured if his memory were revived and integrated within his consciousness, a process that might require a number of sessions.

Only in 1940, with Britain again at war, did he write his memoirs, which detailed his theories about shell shock and its treatment. His account was not well received by the military reviewer in the Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, who argued that the book revealed a "lack of understanding and conviction." Written at a time when the U.K. faced the threat of invasion, the author may have felt that Myers's criticisms of the army's medical services were unpatriotic and defeatist. In truth, they revealed the inability of a mass, hierarchical organization to accommodate the nuanced policy recommendations of an innovative clinician.

Shell Shock is part of the personal story for characters who chose their worst fear as That I would fail so grievously that I would lose the respect of my comrades and be dishonored" during the mission A Light in the Darkness.

There is generally a veteran foe with each group of foes. After clearing the group of Risen spiders you arrive at your destination, whereupon you command your Vigil allies to shell what appear to be enemy Risen. After a cutscene the river beneath is covered in Vigil bodies much to your allies' displeasure.

Something went horribly wrong. I reported to Warmaster Caisson's artillery unit to assist them with their mission. I was put in charge of a mortar team's fire mission, but when the smoke cleared, I saw we had been shelling our own troops. How could this have happened I know I saw the enemy when I gave the order to fire. This could have catastrophic effects on the newly formed Pact's chain of command, so I decided my top priority is getting to the bottom of this.

When working with the photographs in these collections, students should always consider why has the photograph been taken Does it show some kind of development or system of organisation Can you tell if the photograph is posed, or an official war photograph Remember too, a photograph can be selective in choice of subject or could it have been cropped Is there an original caption linked to the photograph Captions can add meaning to a photograph and add a particular message. They are added after the photograph was taken, therefore we must not necessarily take them on face value. It is also useful to know that many soldiers used photography to record their experiences and some carried small Vest Pocket Kodak cameras which were banned after 1915, but many continued to carry them regardless and some such photographs have survived, although examples are not included here. Finally, other soldiers were employed as official photographers during the First World War as well as newspaper photographers.

The big question when working with sources is: how can the evidence provided within the source be considered useful for a particular enquiry question Therefore, encourage students to consider both the witting and unwitting testimony a source may reveal. Part of this evaluation is to consider if there are any gaps in the evidence or issues of accuracy in authorship. Why would we trust/not trust this source What other sources might be needed to provide additional information/context Does the document support other knowledge that you have already for a certain line of enquiry

Always pay attention to the origin of the source. Ask students to look at the document reference. Do they know what that means The record series/government department can contribute a whole layer of meaning to the interpretation of a given source. What does the type of record tell you (see below) about the content of the source

WO records come from the War Office These include the unit war diaries of the British Army in the First World War series WO 95: The diaries are not personal diaries, they may contain details of troop movements, daily routine, intelligence reports, maps or trench maps for example. A few contain details about awards of the Military Medal and the Meritorious Service Medal. The war diaries cover work carried out by the battalion and can provide an insight into the conditions and experience of men in the trenches during the war. Different parts of the collection cover units serving in different theatres e.g. for France and Flanders: WO 95/1-3154, WO 95/3911-4193 and WO 95/5500.

PIN records come from Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance and the records concern war disability pension awards. These cases cover all types of disability pensions awarded after the First World War, and include files for serving men and officers, army, navy and air force, widows and dependants, and nurses. The records reflect the impact of war on people. Deafness, as a cause for disability is highlighted as a result of trench warfare and as an effect of traumatic shell-shock. Again serious cases of trench foot have been the subject of disability awards. The PIN records can show us changes in medical technology. For example records (PIN 38/450) in the series reveal the growth of companies making hearing aids to help those whose hearing was damaged by the sound of heavy explosions and guns. Again the Disablement Services Service section within PIN 38 specifically deals with the supply of artificial limbs and appliances.

ZPER records included in both these themed collections are very useful sources for this topic. They include articles and photographs and drawings from the Illustrated London News. It is important for students to consider the tone and voice of these articles and explore why particular photographs and illustrations have been selected for publication.

The Long Long trial website gives an excellent guide on how to trace a soldier: -to-research-a-soldier/. Hospital admissions and discharge records for your soldier, MH106 are not digitised yet (apart some examples here in this collection) so you would have to visit The National Archives. 153554b96e


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